Allowing players to punish their opponents in Public Goods Game sustains cooperation within a group and thus brings advantage to the cooperative individuals. However, the possibility of punishment of the co-players can result in antisocial punishment, the punishment of those players who contribute the most in the group. To better understand why antisocial punishment exists, it must be determined who are the anti-social punishers and who are their primary targets.
Citation: Kuběna, A.A., Houdek, P., Lindová, J., Příplatová, L., & Flegr, J. (2014). Justine effect: Punishment of the unduly self-sacrificing cooperative individuals. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e92336. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092336