If it’s difficult to pronounce, it might not be risky: The effect of fluency on judgment of risk does not generalize to new stimuli

Processing fluency is used as a basis for various types of judgment. For example, previous research has shown that people judge food additives with names that are more difficult to pronounce (i.e., that are disfluent) to be more harmful. We explored the possibility that the association between disfluency and perceived harmfulness might be in the opposite direction for some categories of stimuli. Although we found some support for this hypothesis, an improved analysis and further studies indicated that the effect was strongly dependent on the stimuli used. We then used stimulus sampling and showed that the original association between fluency and perceived safety was not replicable with the newly constructed stimuli. We found the association between fluency and perceived safety using the newly constructed stimuli in a final study, but only when pronounceability was confounded with word length. The results cast doubt on generalizability of the association between pronounceability and perceived safety and underscore the importance of treating stimulus as a random factor.

Citation: Bahník, Š., & Vranka, M. (2017). If it’s difficult to pronounce, it might not be risky: The effect of fluency on judgment of risk does not generalize to new stimuli. Psychological Science

Is Humblebragging an Effective Impression Management Tactic in a Job Interview?

Citation: Vranka, M., Becková, A., & Houdek, P. (2017). Is Humblebragging an Effective Impression Management Tactic in a Job Interview?. doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/2FBRZ

X good things in life: Processing fluency effects in the „Three good things in life“ exercise

The present study examined whether difficulty of recollection may influence the effectiveness of the “Three good things in life” exercise that has previously been shown to increase happiness. Participants were randomly assigned to write 1–10 good things that happened to them during the day in the course of two weeks. We measured life satisfaction, positive and negative affect before the exercise and three times after the exercise. We found no effect of the number of good things participants wrote each day. Life satisfaction and positive affect of participants did not increase after the two weeks of the exercise, but we found a reduction in negative affect. We further investigated various aspects of the exercise in exploratory analyses.

Citation: Bahník, Š., Vranka, M., Dlouhá, J. (2015). X good things in life: Processing fluency effects in the „Three good things in life“ exercise. Journal of Research in Personality, 55, 91-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.02.005

Replication crises: manipulation of experimental results in psychology

Marek Vranka, member of the Center for Behavioral Experiments in Prague and leader of experimatal laboratory PLESS is discussing the topic of replication crises in psychology. The results of many previous scientific studies and experiments in social sciences are very difficult or impossible to replicate. The article deals with the explanation of the crises and gives basic advices how to overcome this problems in scientific research.

For more information click on the link below:

http://finmag.penize.cz/kaleidoskop/326597-skandaly-s-falsovanim-vyzkumu-v-psychologii-cas-na-velkou-revizi

Many faces of bankers’ identity: How (not) to study dishonesty

Citation: Vranka, M.A., & Houdek, P. (2015). Many faces of bankers’ identity: How (not) to study dishonesty. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(302). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00302

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4364084/

Registered replication report: Study 1 from Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, & Hannon (2002)

Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, and Hannon (2002, Study 1) demonstrated a causal link between subjective commitment to a relationship and how people responded to hypothetical betrayals of that relationship. Participants primed to think about their commitment to their partner (high commitment) reacted to the betrayals with reduced exit and neglect responses relative to those primed to think about their independence from their partner (low commitment). The priming manipulation did not affect constructive voice and loyalty responses. Although other studies have demonstrated a correlation between subjective commitment and responses to betrayal, this study provides the only experimental evidence that inducing changes to subjective commitment can causally affect forgiveness responses. This Registered Replication Report (RRR) meta-analytically combines the results of 16 new direct replications of the original study, all of which followed a standardized, vetted, and preregistered protocol. The results showed little effect of the priming manipulation on the forgiveness outcome measures, but it also did not observe an effect of priming on subjective commitment, so the manipulation did not work as it had in the original study. We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancy between the findings from this RRR and the original study.

Citation: Cheung, I., Campbell, L., LeBel, E.,… Houdek, P.,… Vranka, M.,… Yong, J. C. (2016). Registered replication report: Study 1 from Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, & Hannon (2002). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(5), 750-764. doi: 10.1177/1745691616664694

Is the Emotional Dog Blind to Its Choices? An Attempt to Reconcile the Social Intuitionist Model and the Choice Blindness Effect

Previous choice blindness studies showed that people sometimes fail to notice when their choice is changed. Subsequently, they are willing to provide reasons for the manipulated choice which is the opposite of the one they made just seconds ago. In the present study, participants first made binary judgments about the wrongness of described behaviors and then were shown an opposite answer during a second reading of some of the descriptions. Half of the participants saw the answer during the second presentation of the description and the other half saw it only after the presentation. Based on Haidt’s Social intuitionist model, we hypothesized that participants in the latter group would be less likely to reconcile their intuition with the presented answer and thus they would be more likely to reject it. However, we found no difference between the groups.

Citation: Vranka, M., Bahník, Š. (2016). Is the Emotional Dog Blind to Its Choices? An Attempt to Reconcile the Social Intuitionist Model and the Choice Blindness Effect. Experimental Psychology, 63, 180-188. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000325

Differences in autonomy of humans and ultrasocial insects

The target article is built on an analogy between humans and ultrasocial insects. We argue that there are many important limitations to the analogy that make any possible inferences from the analogy questionable. We demonstrate the issue using an example of the difference between a loss of autonomy in humans and in social insects.

Citation: Vranka, M., Bahník, Š. (2016). Differences in autonomy of humans and ultrasocial insects. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e116. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X1500120X